A cutting tool is a wedge-shaped tool that removes excess material from a pre-made space to achieve the desired shape, size, and accuracy (scissors).
During machining or metal cutting, the cutter presses a thin layer of material into the workpiece and cuts it slowly. However, to remove the content, three relative movements are required.
A cutting tool or cutter is a wedge-shaped tool that presses the workpiece material during machining so that excess material can be slowly removed by cutting to achieve the desired shape, size and accuracy.
Geometry, orientation and materials are the three main factors that affect the performance of cutting tools in material removal.
Every conventional machining operation uses a physical cutting tool. Although the basic shape and characteristics of such a cutting tool vary greatly depending on the type of operation it is intended to perform, each cutting tool must-have part of a wedge shape that I have sharp cutting, which can help in shaving and thus cut the material easily and efficiently.
A particular cutting tool may contain one or more critical cutting edges, and accordingly, it may be classified into three categories – single point, double point and multi-point cutting tools.
As the name suggests, single-point cutting tools have only one main cutting edge, double-point cutting tools have two cutting edges, while multi-point cutting tools have more than two main cutting edges.
These movements actually provide the necessary cutting speed, feed speed and cut depth. The cutting tool itself cannot make such a move because it is firmly attached to the tool holder in the machine tool.
All the necessary movements are provided by the machine tool using different arrangements.
Types of Cutting Tool
Although the basic shape of a cutting tool varies greatly depending on the type of operation it is intended to perform, each cutting tool must have a wedge-shaped part with a sharp cutting edge, which is the material. Can easily cut.
Now, a cutting tool can consist of one or more critical cutting edges that take part in one cutting at a time.
Cutting tools can be classified in different ways. However, the most common method is based on the number of critical cutting edges that participate in the cutting process at a time.
On this basis, cutting tools can be classified into three groups, as given below.
What is a multi-point cutting tool?
A multi-point cutting tool has more than two main cutting edges that engage in one-pass cutting. Sometimes, a cutter with two cutting edges (more than one) is also considered a multi-point cutting tool (instead of a double-point cutter).
The number of cutting edges in a multi-point cutter can vary from three to a few hundred.
Because the cutting edge appears at the intersection of the rack surface and the edge surface, there is also a set of rack surface and edge surface for each cutting edge.
Milling cutters are common examples of this category. Other than fly milling cutters (single-point cutters), others are usually multi-point cutters. It can have a maximum of 40 cutting edges (small end mills say) for heavy-duty large cutters.
Below are some other examples of multi-point cutters besides milling cutters.
- Grinding wheel (abrasive cutter)
- Broach (tool for broaching operation)
- Hone (tool for honing operation)
- Hob (tool for hobbing operation)
Advantages of Multi-point Cutting Tool
- Because the total feed rate or cut depth is evenly distributed across all cutting edges, the chip load on each cutting edge is greatly reduced. Thus, a higher feed rate or cut depth can be used to improve material removal rate to increase production capacity.
- Due to the distribution of the chip load, the acting force on each cutting edge is significantly reduced. Sometimes, a component of the total shear force is automatically reduced (a component of shear force in a particular direction can result is zero).
- During machining, no cutting edge is in constant contact with the workpiece. Instead, engagement and separation happen again and again. This allows a lot of time to dissipate heat from the tool body, which protects the cutter from overheating and plastic damage. This results in a lower rate of increase in the temperature of the instrument due to the intermittent cutting operation.
- Due to the shorter engagement time and lower temperature inside the toll body, the toll wear rate also decreases. As a result, the life of the cutter is extended.
Related Article- Double Point Cutting Tool: Definition, Example, Advantages and More
Disadvantages of Multi-point Cutting Tool
- Due to intermittent bites, cut edges or teeth that suffer from fluctuations. This causes noise, vibration, and endurance failure of the cutter.
- Cutter design and fabrication are relatively difficult. This makes such a cutter expensive.
Related Article: Multi Point cutting Tool: Definition, Examples, Advantages and More
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Abhishek Tiwary is a blogger by passion and a Quality Engineer by profession. He completed his B.Tech degree in the year 2017. Now working in a reputed firm. He loves to share his knowledge with others.