Pelton Turbine: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application

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Today, This blog post will be going to elaborate on Pelton Turbine including its definition, Its parts, and construction with their uses, working, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of this turbine.

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pelton turbine

What is Pelton Turbine?

A Pelton turbine is a tangential flow High Head impulse turbine that uses pressure and kinetic energy of water to convert into mechanical energy and thus generate electricity, known as a Pelton wheel turbine.

This turbine is also known as the Pelton wheel turbine, designed and invented by an American Engineer LA Pelton.

Main Parts of the Pelton Wheel-

Here are some of the main parts and the construction of this turbine-

  1. Penstock
  2. Nozzle
  3. Spear
  4. Casing
  5. Runner
  6. Buckets
  7. Breaking Jet

1. Penstock-

penstock is a kind of water delivery pipe which brings water from the head or dam to the turbine itself with high pressure and kinetic energy.

This penstock can be made from stainless steel or cast iron or may be from concrete depending upon the area of installation.

2. Nozzle-

The nozzle is used to convert high pressure and kinetic energy into only kinetic energy.

sudden contraction of the nozzle tip further helps to increase the jet velocity as well as kinetic energy itself.

3. Spear-

A spear installed in the nozzle further helps to regulate the flow of the jet striking the turbine’s bucket.

This is also called flow regulating arrangement.

4. Casing-

The casing is given to protect the inner equipment of the turbine and further helps to settle down the splashes of high jet towards the tailrace.

The casing doesn’t play a major role except as mentioned above unlike the Francis turbine where the casing plays a major role to runs the turbine.

5. Runner-

The runner is a kind of plate-shaped arrangement connected with the shaft and mounted the multiple buckets.

The runner rotates in an anticlockwise direction when hit by the high-velocity water.

6. Buckets-

Buckets are the parts of the runners which used to take on high-velocity water jets in the center. These buckets are also called vanes.

This bucket also consists of a splitter that divides the jet into two parts to further create the velocity triangle.

7. Breaking Jet-

It is used to stop the runner when the turbine is turned off.

pelton turbine diagram

Working of the Pelton Turbine-

When water travels through the penstock from the Pelton turbine head range of 300 to 400 meters, the water is equipped with high pressure and kinetic energy due to the high head.

Now, High-velocity water is ejected through the nozzle and thus converts hydraulic energy into kinetic energy only.

Ejected water from the nozzle strikes tangentially on the center of the bucket which pushes the buckets along with the runner in the anticlockwise direction.

Splitter installed on the bucket splits the water jet into two parts with 160 to 170-degree angles of reflection and diverts those water to the tailrace after completion of the strike.

Now, The rotating runner helps to rotate the attached shaft by converting hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

The rotating shaft is connected to the Pelton wheel generator which further Pelton generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and thus electricity is produced.

This is how the Pelton hydro turbine works.


  1. The efficiency of the Pelton turbine is 95%, making it one of the high-efficiency hydraulic turbines around the globe.
  2. Compact Design
  3. Easy to maintain
  4. Installation of this Pelton water turbine is easier than others.
  5. No use of a draft tube prevents this turbine from cavitation.


  1. Needs high head discharge to operate
  2. Control of jet flow can be hard sometimes
  3. Costlier than the Francis turbine even if it generates the same amount of electricity


  1. To generate electricity.


Wrapping Up-

This is for Pelton Turbine for now. If you have any doubt in your mind or if I missed something, Feel free to mention in the comment section below.

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Here are some suggested related articles, You must consider reading further-

Reaction Turbine- Definition, Types, Working, Uses & More

Propeller Turbine: Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications

Constant Volume & Constant Pressure Gas Turbine

Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine


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