Propeller Turbine: Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications

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Today, I am going to discuss Propeller Turbine with Its definition, Parts, working, advantages, disadvantages, and applications along with a free pdf to download at the end.

So, without wasting too much time of yours, let’s dive into the mainstream…

Propeller Turbine

What is Propeller Turbine?

A Propeller turbine is a reaction turbine with inward or axial flow designed for a high flow rate with four to six fixed or adjustable blades.

There are various types of propeller turbines including-

  • Bulb turbine
  • Straflo TUrbine
  • Tubular Turbine
  • Kaplan Turbine
  • VLH Turbine
  • Dive Turbine
  • Tyson TUrbine

Parts and Construction of Propeller Turbine-

The major parts of this propeller turbine are-

  1. Scroll Case
  2. Wicket Gates
  3. Runner
  4. Draft Tube

1. Scroll Casing-

Scroll casing is a kind of protective mechanism that protects the internal parts of the turbine including runners, blades, guide vanes, etc.

This scroll case also guides the flow of water towards the guide vanes without reducing the pressure and kinetic energy of water which further helps to improve the efficiency of the turbine.

2. Wicket Gates-

It is adjustable gates installed at a fixed angle and also kind of guide vanes which helps to provide the water a suitable angle to hit the turbine’s blade and help it to rotate.

3. Runner-

The heart of any turbine namely- the Runner. Runner consists of a blade and an attached shaft with it. It rotates when the runner’s blades are hit by high-velocity water coming from the Dam’s head via penstock.

4. Draft Tube-

It is connecting pipe located at the turbine’s outlet which is further connected from the tailrace.

When high-velocity water hits the turbine’s blades, it goes directly into the draft tube using the inward flow mechanism.

The draft tubes are designed in such a way that further increases the pressure of water using water’s kinetic energy and also decreases the velocity of water before sending the water to the tailrace.

Although, Draft tubes also prevent the turbines from cavitation.

diagram of propeller turbine

Working of Propeller Turbine-

When penstock derives water from penstock to the scroll casing, the spiral design of the casing helps the water to maintain its kinetic and pressure energy while taking it to the wicket gates or guide vanes.

Now, the wicket gate pushes high velocity toward the center of the runner’s blade. Hitting high-velocity and high-pressure water causes the runner’s blade to rotate.

The rotation of blades further causes to rotate the runner and also the attached shaft with it. Here, the hydraulic energy of water gets converted into mechanical energy.

Now, the shaft is connected to the generator which further converts those mechanical energies into electrical energy.

This is how the propeller turbine generates electricity and this is how they work.

→Now, Let’s move to another section of this article which is propeller turbine advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages of the propeller turbines-

Here are some of the benefits of these turbines-

  1. It can work on both Low or High head
  2. Requires less space
  3. Compact in design
  4. Economical
  5. Highly efficient turbine

Disadvantages of the propeller turbines-

Here are some of the drawbacks of these turbines-

  1. Sealing and Cavitation
  2. leakage problem
  3. The dam or head should be larger in dimension
  4. The rate of the water flow must be high to run the turbine
  5. Regular maintenance is needed

Application of the propeller turbines-

Here are some of the uses of these turbines-

  1. Ships
  2. Submarines
  3. Power Generation
  4. Power Industries
  5. Hydr0-electric sites


Wrapping Up-

This is all I have for the Propeller turbine. I hope, you learned something new in the short and sweet form including various aspects of this turbine.

If this post added some value to you, then share this valuable knowledge with your needy ones including near and dear ones.

Bookmark Engineers Rail to read more upcoming articles with ease.

Till then take care of yourself and your loved ones. I hope to see you in the next session.

Peace !!

Here are some of the related articles, you never miss-

Francis Turbine: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages and Disadvantages and Much More

Classification of Turbines

Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine

Constant Volume & Constant Pressure Gas Turbine



Here’s your freebie to collect before you leave-

Propeller turbine pdfpropeller turbine pdf


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