Surface Condenser: Working, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

Engineers Rail is pleased to welcome you. I’m going to explain the surface condenser today.

If you want to learn more about it, you’ve come to the correct place. I hope this helps you add a few more drops to your knowledge tank.

So, without further hesitation, let’s get this party started…

What is Condenser?

A condenser is a device that converts steam to water at a lower pressure than the atmosphere. The condenser is divided into two categories based on the direction of flow and the cooling action:

What is Surface Condenser?

A surface condenser is a device used in thermal power plants to convert steam into the water without making direct contact with the coolant.

Large power plants and refrigeration systems typically employ surface condensers. The primary goal is to condense the dissipated steam and convert it to impurity-free water that may be utilised in a steam generator or boiler. Indirect contact or non-mixed type condenser is another name for it.

Surface condenser is one of the most crucial pieces of equipment in thermal power plants. A huge amount of water will be required to run a thermal power plant without a surface condenser.

surface condenser diagram

Read More- Condenser: Definition, Principle, Types, Working, Advantages

Components of the Surface Condenser-

It has a massive cylindrical vessel and a cylinder-shaped condenser. Water tubes are positioned horizontally inside the cylinder, allowing for constant water flow. The top and lower sections of the tubes have opposing water flow directions.

The device contains both inlets and outlets for water flow, and two water storage tanks are situated on the vessel’s two sides, separated by a baffle. Steam pours into the cylinder from the steam input portion.

A valve is also placed at the condenser’s bottom, where the condensate is extracted. The perforated tubes are perpendicular to the water-carrying tubes on both sides.

surface condenser components

Read More- Jet Condenser- Definition, Types, Application and Advantages

 Surface Condenser Working-

Its primary role is to transmit heat from a high to a low temperature, which implies that steam transfers heat to the water tube to reduce temperature levels. The steam is then converted into the water during the heat transfer process.

By travelling from the steam intake to the water tubes, heated steam comes into touch with the water, which has a rotating flow after entering the tubes. The heat transmission process begins when water tubes and steam come into contact.

The steam is then disconnected from the heat source and converted into a liquid known as condensate. Condensate is now removed from the vessel by employing a value found at the bottom of the cylinder.

Read more- Difference between Jet condenser and Surface condenser

Type of Surface Condenser-

Surface condensers are divided into four categories:

  1. Downflow surface condenser
  2. Central flow surface condenser
  3. Evaporative surface condenser
  4. Regenerative surface condenser

DownFlow Surface Condenser-

Exhausted steam goes from the top of the condenser shell to the bottom of the condenser shell through the water tubes in a downflow type condenser. The cold water travels downhill first, then upwards, allowing for the most efficient heat transmission.

Central Flow Surface condenser-

It’s a more complex form of the downflow type, with a network of passageways around the shell. The major purpose of this is to remove air from the condenser’s central section.

To lessen the under-cooling property, the condensed air and vented steam flow toward the central area of the condenser.

Evaporative Surface condenser-

The steam that is to be condensed is routed through a series of tubes and sprayed with cooling water to keep the temperature under control. Exhausted steam boosts both cooling water evaporation and condensate steam.

Regenerative Surface Condenser-

This sort of surface condenser is suitable for greater temperature levels. Regenerative condensate is used, and the temperature of the condensate may be increased by passing it via exhaust steam.

Because condensate is at such high temperatures, it may be reused, increasing the condenser’s efficiency.

Read more- Condenser and Vacuum Efficiencies: Everything You Need To Know

Applications of Surface Condenser-

The uses of a surface condenser are as follows:

  • Vacuum refrigeration
  • Vacuum vaporisation
  • Desalination
  • Contaminant removal
  • Thermoelectric power plants

Advantages of Surface Condenser-

The following are some of the benefits of using a surface condenser:

  • High vacuum efficiency
  • Suitable for high capacity plants:
  • Pure condensation:
  • Any quality of water can be used
  • Minimum power requirement

Disadvantages of Surface Condenser-

The following are some of the drawbacks of using a surface condenser:

  • Large amount of water requirement
  • Complex Design
  • High maintanance cost
  • Aquire large space


Wrapping Up-

For the time being, that’s all there is to it. I hope you enjoyed the article on Surface Condenser. If that’s the case, tell your friends and family. Engineers Rail should be bookmarked for future reference.

Here are some more articles that you might enjoy reading:

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What’s the Difference between condenser and Evaporator?

Difference between High Level and Low Level Jet Condenser

Eddy Current Testing of Condenser Tubes

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