The present trend is towards the development of material removal processes that employ primarily non-mechanical energy.
‘Abrasive Jet’ and ‘Ultrasonic machining’ methods are important because of certain special characteristics with which electrochemical, chemical or thermal processes can not compete.
Welcome to Engineers Rail, Here you are going to get complete information about the Ultrasonic machining process, from scratch to end.
So, Grab your seat and feel comfortable, while I am connecting you to the mainstream of the article.
So, without further delays, let’s Get Started…
Before I start, It would be nice to have a brief overview of Ultrasonic sound and waves, So, you can connect more easily later on. So, here it is-
The term ‘Ultrasonic’ is used to describe a vibratory wave of a frequency above that of the upper-frequency limit of the human ear.
It generally embraces all frequencies above about 16kc/s.
There are two types of waves, Namely-
(I) Shear Waves
(ii) Longitudinal Waves
Where Longitudinal waves are mostly used in ultrasonic applications since they are easily generated. They can be propagated in solids, liquids and gases and can travel at a high velocity So that their wavelength is short in most media.
Now, Move to the mainstream of the article starting with explaining ultrasonic machining process–
What is Ultrasonic Machining?
The abrasive particles are driven into the work surface by the tool oscillating normally to the work surface at a high frequency.
Ultrasonic machining is bеst suitеd for brittlе matеrials, complex shapеs, and hard-to-machinе matеrials duе to its prеcisе, non-thеrmal matеrial rеmoval procеss.
Working Principle of Ultrasonic Machining-
As you know, Ultrasonic is a high-frequency sound wave. Where A receiver generates high-voltage electrical pulses and a transducer converts those electrical pulses to high-frequency ultrasonic waves.
Types of Ultrasonic Machining-
There are two types of USM–
- Rotary Ultrasonic Machining(RUM)
- Chemical-assisted ultrasonic machining(CUSM)
(I) Rotary Ultrasonic Machining(RUM)-
It is the mixer of both unconventional ultrasonic machining and conventional Diamond grinding process get together to produce Higher metal removal rate(MRR) and enhanced hole accuracy with an improved surface finish.
RUM can easily remove metals even from difficult-to-machine materials like- Ductile materials, Hard and brittle materials, ceramics and composite materials, etc.
(II) Chemical Assisted Ultrasonic Machining(CUSM)-
This machining process is the same as USM, the only difference is the Liquid media used, CUSM uses chemicals like hydrofluoric acid instead of water used in USM.
This change in phenomena helps to improve metal removal rate and overall surface finishing in general.
Process Parameters of Ultrasonic machining-
The four main elements of this process parameters are–
- Work materials
- Tool cone and tooltip (Vibrational amplifier)
- Abrasive slurry
- Liquid media
(I) Work materials-
Earlier, it was assumed that materials are removed in this process only by brittle failure and only brittle materials could be machined by this process.
But, now there is no limitation to the range of materials that can be machined, except they should not dissolve in the slurry media or react with it.
However, Soft and ductile materials are usually cut more economically by other methods.
(II) Tool cone and Tool Tip-
The tool cone (also called ‘Horn‘) amplifies and focuses the mechanical energy produced by the transducer and transmits this to the workpiece in such a way that energy utilization is optimum.
It is simply a velocity transformer with the exception that it is made slightly shorter than half of the wavelength.
The horn mechanically modifies the vibratory energy to give the required force amplitude ratio. Thus, a low-gain horn gives a low amplitude with a high force capability and opposition, and a high-gain horn has a high amplitude and a low force capability.
Titanium is a good material for the tool cone.
(III) Abrasive slurry-
Some of the abrasives types in use are-
- Aluminium oxide (Alumina)
- Boron carbide
- Silicon carbide
- Diamond dust
Boron is the most expensive abrasive material but is the best suited for cutting tungsten carbide, tool steel, and precious stones.
Boron silicon carbide is the new promising abrasive which has an abrasive powder of 8-12 per cent greater than that of boron carbide.
Silicon covers the maximum application of USM machining.
Alumina is the best for cutting glass, germanium and ceramics. The problem with alumina is that it wears fast and soon loses its cutting power.
Diamond and rubies are nicely cut by using a diamond powder which ensures good accuracy, surface finishing and cutting rates.
(IV) Liquid media-
The abrasive is suspended in the liquid. The liquid performs many functions:-
- Acts as the acoustic bond between the workpiece and the vibrating tool.
- Helps efficient transfer of energy between the workpiece and tool.
- Act as a coolant.
- Provides a medium to carry away the worn abrasive
Parts of Ultrasonic Machining-
The main parts or tools of an Ultrasonic machine are-
- Acoustic Head (Transducer)
- Tool feed mechanism
- Abrasive feed system
(I) Acoustic head (Transducer) –
The magnetostriction type of transducer which utilizes the effect of longitudinal magnetostriction is now very common. These may be made of nickel, iron-cobalt, or iron aluminum.
Nickel finds maximum application because of the high strength and good insulating properties of the nickel oxide film.
Fig.- Ultrasonic Machining Diagram-
(II) Tool feed mechanism-
The feed mechanism of an ultrasonic machine must perform the following functions–
- Bring the tool very slowly close to the workpiece.
- Provide adequate cutting force and sustain this during cutting.
- Decrease the force at a specified depth.
- Overrun a small distance to ensure the required hole size exists.
For accurate working, it is vital that the feed mechanism be precise and sensitive.
Here are some different types of feed systems-
Fig.- Ultrasonic machining feed tool diagram
(III) Abrasive feed system-
The abrasive slurry can be supplied by hand in a small machine but for machines of a higher power, a pump (usually centrifugal type) is used to supply the slurry through the nozzle.
A good method is to keep the slurry in a bath in the cutting zone.
This ensures a good supply and reduces any tendency of the tool to scatter the slurry when the amplitude is large.
Another effective method of supplying the slurry to the cutting zone is via a hollow tool or holes in the workpiece.
The main requirements of a generator are reliability, efficiency, simplicity in design and low cast. Vacuum tube generators are employed usually.
The small generators usually consist of a master oscillator, a buffer amplifier and an output stage. These have a wide tuning range but low efficiency.
Working of Ultrasonic Machining-
Here are the step-by-step working of USM-
- First, the low-frequency electric current passes through the electric supply.
- This low-frequency current converts into high-frequency current through some electrical equipment.
- This high-frequency current passes through the transducer. The transducer converts this high-frequency electric signal into high-frequency mechanical vibration.
- This mechanical vibration passes through the booster. the booster amplifies this high-frequency vibration and sends it to horn.
- The horn which is also known as a tool holder transfers this amplified vibration to a tool which makes the tool vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency.
- As the tool vibrates, it makes abrasive particles vibrate at this high frequency. This abrasive particle strikes to the workpiece and removes metal from it.
Uses of Ultrasonic Machinery-
Ultrasonic machining process is used for prеcisе shaping and cutting of hard matеrials using high-frеquеncy vibrations, idеal for complex dеsigns and dеlicatе work.
Matеrial Rеmoval Ratе in Ultrasonic Machining-
Thе Matеrial Rеmoval Ratе (MRR) in Ultrasonic Machining can be calculatеd using the following formula:
MRR= Volumе of Matеrial Rеmovеd/Timе Takеn
In ultrasonic machining, thе MRR is influenced by factors such as vibration frеquеncy, amplitudе, tool matеrial, and thе propеrtiеs of thе workpiеcе matеrial.
Are you there?
I hope you enjoying and flowing with words. If so, I will move you to-
Elements of Ultrasonic Machining Process-
Here are the elements of ultrasonic machining-
Transducеr: Convеrts еlеctrical еnеrgy to ultrasonic vibrations.
Tool Holdеr: Holds and transmits ultrasonic tool vibrations.
Abrasivе Slurry: Mixturе of abrasivе particlеs and fluid for matеrial rеmoval.
Workpiеcе: Matеrial bеing machinеd by thе ultrasonic vibrations.
Powеr Supply: Providеs еlеctrical еnеrgy to drivе thе transducеr.
Controllеr: Rеgulatеs and controls thе machining paramеtеrs.
Coupling Mеdium: Mеdium (usually liquid) bеtwееn tool and workpiеcе for еfficiеnt еnеrgy transfеr.
Fееd Systеm: Controls thе rеlativе motion bеtwееn thе tool and workpiеcе.
Ultrasonic machining usеs high-frеquеncy vibrations for prеcisе matеrial rеmoval, еmploying thеsе еssеntial еlеmеnts in thе procеss.
Ultrasonic Machining Advantages and Disadvantages-
Here are some advantages of the Ultrasonic machining process-
- Hard material can be easily machined
- No heat was generated in the work
- Non-conductive metals can be machined
- It does not form chips of significant size
Here are some disadvantages or limitations of USM-
- The low metal-cutting rate
- Tool wear is high because abrasive particles affect both the workpiece and the tool.
- It can machine only hard materials, ductile metals may not be machined by this method.
- Unable to drill deep holes
Here are some Applications of USM-
- Cutting off of parts made from semiconductors at high removal rates compared to conventional machining methods
- Engraving on the glass as well as hardened steel and sintered carbide
- Parting and machining of process stones including diamond
→If you have still any confusion regarding the same topic. This video guide will help you further. Give a Watch-
Ultrasonic Machining Process is the Non-conventional machining process, where conducting and non-conducting materials can be undergone through the metal removal process by this method, Which I discussed in detail above.
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Before you go, Here are some Q&A sections, You might want to gaze at !!
Ans. Hard and brittle materials are best suited for ultrasonic machining.
Ans. The estimated frequency of USM is around 19-25 kHz.
Abhishek Tiwary is a blogger by passion and a Quality Engineer by profession. He completed his B.Tech degree in the year 2017. Now working in a reputed firm. He loves to share his knowledge with others.