Types of Pattern in Casting: Function, Types, Allowance, Materials Used

Casting is a common word that people can hear when they come to make combined of metal, wood, or plastic. Generally, the casting comes in the shape through a pattern. If you come to make any form of the model under the process of casting, you need to know the pattern very well. For the work easy and effective, there must be lots of patterns and before you come to deal with casting, you should know all types of patterns well.

What is a pattern?

The pattern is a very important and essential tool in need of the casting process. It is like a model of anything. The pattern provides a shape of the mould in damp sand or other suitable material. To know the functions of the pattern, please come on the below details.

What are the functions of a pattern?

The functions of a pattern come in multiple ways. It comes to creating mould cavities of the correct shape and size. The pattern also produces seats for cores in moulds, parting surfaces, and lines in moulds and minimizes defects in castings. To use the casting, you should come the types of patterns. Here are the details mentioned below.

Types of pattern-

Here are some variety of patterns

  • The solid or single pattern
  • Split pattern
  • Cope and drag pattern
  • Match plate pattern
  • Loose-piece pattern
  • Gated pattern
  • Sweep pattern
  • Shell pattern
  • Segmented pattern
  • Skeleton pattern

Single-Piece or Solid pattern –

This particular pattern comes with joints or loose pieces in construction. It is very cheaper but the moulding operation takes more time. A solid pattern comes to be used for large castings. It can have no or few irregularities without a core point. Examples are stuffing-box, soil tamper, and the glad of the steam engine.

Split Pattern

The split pattern is also important for different kinds of patterns and this kind comes with two parts. Two parts may or may not be the same in shape and size.

Match the plate pattern

These types of patterns come in two parts. One piece is one side of the plate and the other one is for another side. The plate usually comes with the construction of aluminium. These patterns come to be used where rapid production of castings is available.

Drag or Cope Pattern

In need of large castings, this kind of pattern is essential. This one comes in two parts. It is very essential to form a complete cavity.

Gated Pattern

To produce small castings, the gated pattern is very important. This one provides suitable gates in the sand in need of molten metal. This kind is very demandable all the time.

Loose Pattern –

For these particular types, some single-piece patterns are required to enable their easy withdrawal. These pieces are required for an integral part during the time of moulding. It comes through the cavity formed.

Sweep Pattern

A sweep pattern is used for large symmetrical castings. It saves your time, labour, and material. It is consists of a board that confirms the shape. The sand is rammed in place and the sweep board come to be moved around the axis. It is a very expensive pattern.

Skeleton Pattern

This particular pattern comes with a wooden frame and it is uneconomical to make a solid pattern. The pattern is filled with loam sand and rammed. This pattern is very effective and popular.

Segmented Pattern

These types of patterns in casting come to be used for preparing moulds in need of large size. It looks like a sweep pattern. It is mounted on the central axis. This particular type has a similarity to the sweep pattern.

Shell Pattern

This one is used for drainage fittings as well as pipework. It is made of metal and mounted on a plate. Shell Pattern comes like a shell pattern.

What are the types of pattern allowances?

The most common allowances used on patterns are-

  • Shrinkage Allowance – The materials used for castings get shrinkage after solidification and cooling. As a result, the pattern comes larger than the actual measurement.
  • Draft allowance – The possibility of damaging the edge of the mould comes when the pattern is drawn from a mould. As result, this type comes to be decreased. The slight tapper inside the vertical surface is known as the draft.

The draft comes in four ways-

  1. The shape of the casting
  2. Depth of the casting
  3. Mould material
  4. Moulding method

Machining Allowance – The rough castings on the surfaces needs finishing work that needs drawings. The extra amount of metal that needs to be under finishing work through machine allowance.

Distortion allowance – Distortion allowance is needed when an irregular shape is necessary generally at the time of cooling. In that case, the effect comes in a dome shape or ‘U’ shape.

Rapping allowance – Rapping allowance is very necessary during the time of pattern withdrawal. This allowance is not perfect for small & medium-sized castings.

What materials are used for making patterns?

The materials used in the patterns are-

Wood – With this material, anyone can make a different kind of pattern. It is to work and comes for many types. It is very flexible to give the right pattern but it’s easily affected by moisture.

Cast Iron – Cast Iron comes strong and gives a smooth mould surface but it is easily breakable. This material has good resistance power.

Brass – Brass is used for small patterns. It is strong and rust-free even better than cast iron. It is heavier than cast iron.

Aluminium – This one is strong, soft, and lightweight. You can bring any pattern with this material. It is not good to use for rough use.

White Metal – With it, you can bring any shape. It has no shrinkage. Even, it is soft and simply worn out by the sand. It is undoubtedly good for the pattern.

Plastic – This one has high resistance, good strength but is light in weight. It provides a fine surface finish.

Plaster – It helps you to bring a targeted shape within a short time. Moreover, it has high compressive strength.

Wax – Wax has high tensile strength with hardness but low ash. It is superb for investment casting.

It is good to know that patterns or types of pattern are models of anything and it is made of mould. The cost of castings comes affordable with the help of a pattern. To make yourself satisfied, you need to have a variety of patterns. 


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Before you go, Here are some suggested articles, you should look further-

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