Are you searching to know about Types of Springs?
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Spring is an elastic body whose main function is to store energy when in loaded condition and release the energy slowly when the load is removed.
Spring is an elastic body that gives a relatively large elastic deflection under a given load. It recovers its original shape when released after being distorted.
Spring is a mechanical elastic element that changes its shape during load application and regains its shape after unloading.
Spring is a very common product used in our daily life like a pen, Vehicles, Mechanical devices as well as medical devices and it is made up of a material having very high yield strength to restore elasticity.
Materials used to manufacture spring-
- Oil Tempered steel
- Stainless Steel
- Chrome Silicon
Why we need Mechanical Springs-
- To absorb the shock load
- To store energy
- To measure force
- To return motion
- To control vibrations
After knowing these basics, Let’s head on to the main-stream of the article-
Types of Spring-
Here are some common types of springs used in Various Applications-
- Helical Springs
- Spiral Spring
- Leaf Springs
- Disc Springs
- Volute spring or Conical Spring
- Block Spring
- Special purpose springs
- Other Springs
Now, Let me discuss these types of spring one by one-
A helical spring is made up of a wire or rod coiled into a helix. It is primarily intended for axial direct compression or tension loads.
Helical springs are made of round, square, or rectangular cross-sections. The common purpose to use this Helical spring is to handle the compressive and tensile load.
A commonly used Mechanical spring is- Helical spring typically shaped in the form of a coil or Helix.
Types of Helical Springs-
Helical springs can be classified into four categories according to load condition-
- Compression helical springs
- Tension helical springs
- Torsion Springs
Compression Helical Springs-
This type of spring resists compressive or push force when the helical coil is pressed or squeezed by the load.
A helical spring is called an open-coiled helical spring if its wire is coiled in such a way that there is a large gap between the two consecutive helices or turns.
The spring can take a compressive load. This is also known as an open coil spring.
Application of compression coil-
- Motorcycle suspension
It is just opposite to a compression spring attached with U-shaped or I-shaped hook typically at the one end side or can be both end side.
This is also known as a closed coil spring.
A helical spring is called a close-coiled helical spring if the pitch distance between any two consecutive helices or turns is small.
The plane containing each coil is nearly perpendicular to the axis of the helix. In this case, the helix angle should be small.
Application of Tension Spring-
- Lever mechanism
- Counterbalancing of garage doors
- Weighing machine
- Vise-grip pilers
- Garage door assemblies
Torsional helical spring is similar to compression helical spring and used for Jesional load. When a twisting moment is applied, the wire of the spring wound and the diameter of the spring coils decreases.
Their ends are shaped to transmit torque. These types of springs tend to wind up by the load. They can be either helical or spiral in shape.
This torsion spring is mostly used in circuit breakers.
Application of Torsion springs-
- Automobile starters
- Rocker switches
- Door hinges
These springs are used for any application where torque is required.
This type of spring is basically used in the constant rotational mechanism or in the constant releasing of force. Spiral spring is also known as clock spring or constant force spring.
It consists of a flat strip wound in the form of a spiral and is loaded in torsion. One end of this spring is fixed rigidly to the spindle.
The other end of the spring is tied at the part to be moved. By the motion of the spindle, the spring opens up slowly and moves the part.
The spring is made of high-carbon steel (H.C.S.). They are hardened and tempered. These springs are used to apply low-magnitude torque and to transmit rotational motion.
Application of spiral spring-
- Alarm timepiece
- Several measuring instruments
- Window regulators
- DC motors
- Automotive seat recliners
Leaf spring is a commonly used and traditional type of spring in automobile industries or vehicles where metal plates of different lengths are kept together with the help of bolts and clamps.
A leaf spring consists of a number of thin curved plates or leaves or laminations of uniform cross-sections, but of varying lengths.
These thin plates of unequal steel strips are piled one on top of the other The leaf spring is supported at the ends and loaded at the center.
The longest leaf fastened to the support is called the main leaf or main plate. Its ends are bent to form an eye to which shackles are fastened.
The most common type of leaf spring is the semi-elliptical leaf spring. These springs are also called carriage springs or built-up springs.
It is commonly used for vehicle suspension or heavy vehicles and this spring is also known as Laminated spring, Invented in England in the 18th century.
Materials used to manufacture leaf springs are- Chrome vanadium steel, Silicomanganese steel, and Carbon steel.
Types of Leaf springs are-
- Quarter elliptic leaf spring
- Semi-elliptic leaf spring
- Transverse leaf spring
- Helper Spring
Application of Leaf Spring-
Leaf springs used in-
- Absorbing shocks
- Power press
- Forging process
Disc spring is dynamically or statically loaded to its axis and requires less space for installation and can bear larger loads, thus this spring has more advantages compared to other springs.
Application of Disc spring-
- Slip clutch
- Overload clutches
- High-pressure valve
- Drill bit shock absorber
Volute or Conical Springs-
A conical spring can be obtained by winding the wire in a conical form so that the larger coils which have a greater deflection rate, will successively drop out of action by seating on the next smaller coil.
A conical spring is used where there is less space or where a single spring with a Variable stiffness is required. These are also used in vibration problems where springs for varying stress purposes are desired.
The major stresses produced in this spring are compressive stress and also shear stress due to twisting.
Volute springs are wounded with constant pitch and lead angles whereas Conical springs are wounded with a uniform pitch.
Under compression, coils of these springs slide past each other and make the spring compress to a very shorter length.
These are the compression spring that has conical shapes.
Volute springs are specially used for such places where telescopic spring action is required. Therefore these springs are also called telescoping springs.
They are used to absorb shock vibrations. They are made in the form of blocks out of rubber or any elastic material and used in foam cushions as the shock absorbs.
For example- cushion form, shock absorbers, etc.
Special Purpose Springs-
As the name suggests, These types of springs are used in specialized areas or in different areas according to requirements. These springs are all together made of different materials.
Some special-purpose springs are also made to suit requirements. These springs work like pneumatic, hydraulic, rubber, or ring spring.
Other types of Springs-
Some of more springs are used in different Industries-
- Constant Springs
- Variable Springs
- variable stiffness Springs
- Flat springs
- Machined Springs
- Serpentine Springs
- Cantilever Springs
- Hair Spring or Balance Spring
- V- Springs
- Gas Springs
- Ideal Springs
- Main Springs
- Negator Springs
- Progressive rate coil springs
Application of springs-
Here are some common applications of spring-
- To absorb or control energy due to shock or vibrations
- For energy restoration
- For applying force
- For motion control
- For force measurement
Function of Springs-
Springs have a variety of applications and are made in various forms. The main functions of springs are:
- To absorb energy and to provide a cushion effect to shocks as in automobiles, railway carriages, seats of scooters, bicycles, aircraft landing gears, etc.
- To store and redistribute energy as in clock springs, and circuit breakers.
- To apply force and to control motion, as in brakes, clutches valves, governors, etc.
- To measure force in spring balances, weighing machines, and gauges.
- To dampen the vibrations.
- To control relative motion between two matting elements. For example- In a governor, in a cam follower, and in an I.C. engine valve.
These were Some Types of Springs that are used in various Industries as per requirements.
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Abhishek Tiwary is a blogger by passion and a Quality Engineer by profession. He completed his B.Tech degree in the year 2017. Now working in a reputed firm. He loves to share his knowledge with others.