Simple Vertical Boiler: Definition, Construction, Working, Efficiency and More (With PDF)


This is Abhishek, Welcoming you to the number one portal for all your engineering queries, namely- Engineers Rail.

Today, You and I are here to discuss the Simple Vertical Boiler which will include definition, parts and construction, working, advantages and disadvantages and further its applications, and much more down the road.

Before I proceed, let me tell you that you can download this article as a PDF at the end of this session, so don’t forget to grab your freebie at the end.

What is Simple Vertical Boiler?

It is a low-pressure, vertically placed, naturally circulated, water tube Boiler consisting of a cylindrical shell.

It is a type of boiler which generates only 10 bar of steam pressure and is used where a low amount of steam(1000kg/hr) is required.

The water tubes in a simple vertical boiler are placed inclined to increase the heating temperature of the water and to further create a density difference for natural circulation.

Parts of the simple vertical Boiler-

There are several parts and components or Boiler’s Mounting and Accessories used in this vertical boiler namely-

  1. Feed Check Valve
  2. Fire Hole
  3. Hand Hole
  4. Fusible Plug
  5. Water Gauge
  6. Manhole
  7. Pressure Guage
  8. Steam Stop valve
  9. Safety Valve
  10. Fire Box
  11. Fire Box
  12. Grate
  13. Ashpit
  14. Chimney

simple vertical boiler diagram

1. Feed Check Valve-

A feed check valve is generally used to feed the water in the boiler or fill the water in the boiler up to the desired limit.

2. Fire Hole-

A fire hole is a place which is used to place the fuel(Coal) on the grate in the furnace.

3. Hand Hole-

A hand hole is used to clean the water tubes from inside using hands or a cleaning instrument.

4. Fusible Plug-

Fusible plugs are used to protect the boiler from overheating. When the maximum temperature limit is reached, the fusible plug melts away, and sprinkle the water on the furnace to control the burning fire and further shut it down, if needed.

This fusible plug is made up of brass, bronze, or from gunmetal and is cylindrical in shape.

5. Water Gauge-

As you may know, a water gauge is used to measure the water lever in boilers and this gauge is also known as a water level indicator.

6. Manhole-

Manhole is the place to enter the boiler for cleaning or maintenance purposes.

7. Pressure Gauge-

As the name suggests, It is a device to measure the pressure in the boiler.

8. Steam Stop Valve-

It is a device to hold the dry steam and sends it to the needed place. This is an exit valve for the generated steam. It can be shut off when needing for steam is over.

It functions as a ‘tap of water’.

9. Safety Valve-

it is a device used to control the steam pressure and kept under the desired limit. If steam pressure goes beyond the desired, it gets fused and saves the boiler from exploding and bursting.

10. Fire Box-

A firebox is an area in this boiler where smoke and flue gases are collected to further provide the heating effect from the upper side.

11. Grate-

The grate is the place in the boiler which holds the fuel and further burns in the same place. A grate plays an important role in the boiler’s functioning and operations.

12. Ashpit-

Ashpit is a place used to collect the ashes generated from the burning of fuel.

13. Chimney-

Chimneys are used to release exhaust flue gases into the environment.

Construction of the simple vertical Boiler-

  • A feed check valve is installed at the bottom of the boiler in the front of the side to feed the water into the boiler.
  • Firehole is placed just above the feed valve by which fuel is placed on the grate of the boiler.
  • A hand hole is also placed just above the firehole which cleanses the water tubes using the cleaning instruments.
  • The water lever indicator is placed just above the hand hole visible from the front side and as you know, it is used to indicate the water lever present inside the boiler.
  • A fusible plug is an inside device of the boiler assembled on the firebox inside and it is used to control the temperature inside the boiler.
  • Manhole is placed just above the water gauge and can be seen from the front side of the boiler.
  • A pressure Gauge is placed just above the manhole at the top which further check the level of the pressure created inside the boiler.
  • The steam stop valve is placed at the top of the boiler which is used to deliver the generated steam at the desired location.
  • The chimney is installed at the top of the boiler in a long and cylindrical shape and releases the exhaust flue gases into the environment.
  • A safety valve is placed just parallel to the steam stop valve behind the boiler.
  • A firebox is an area situated above the grate which used to ignite the fuel and supply the hot flue gases inside the boiler.
  • The grate is placed at the bottom of the boiler inside just above the ashpit.
  • Ashpit is placed at the bottom of the boiler and used to collect the ashes coming from the grate by burning fuel.

Dimensions of the simple vertical boiler-

  • Diameter- 3.9 to 5 feet
  • Height- 9Feet
  • Boiler Pressure- 100PSI

Working of Simple Vertical Boiler-

  1. When fuel is burnt on the grate placed via fire hole.
  2. The flue gases are started to generate in the furnace of the boiler during combustion.
  3. Now, feed water is fed into the boiler via a feed check valve using a feed pump with water at its desired level.
  4. Now, flue gases travel upward and hit the water tube placed inclined in the middle of the boiler.
  5. Passing water from the inclined water tube gets heated through the flue gases via the heat exchange method and further creates a temperature or density difference between hot and cold water and helps to circulate the water naturally without using any kind of circulating pump.
  6. As the water heated up to a boiling point, It gets converted into steam and starts to collect into the steam drum.
  7. Now, the generated steam goes to the desired place via the steam stop valve.
  8. This is how a simple vertical Boiler works.

Advantages of Simple Vertical Boiler-

There are several benefits of using this simple boiler-

  1. Doesn’t requires a large space
  2. Simple Design
  3. Cost Efficient
  4. Easy to operate
  5. Easy to Install
  6. Portable boiler

Disadvantages of Simple Vertical Boiler-

These are the drawbacks of using this simple boiler-

  1. Made for small steam power plants
  2. Low-pressure boiler
  3. Regular maintenance is needed
  4. Not able to handle load fluctuation
  5. Efficiency decrease in time due to water sedimentation. However, it can be fixed with regular cleaning.

Applications of Simple Vertical Boiler-

There are several  uses of this boiler and some of those are-

  1. Automobile Industries
  2. In steam wagons
  3. Marine applications just like a scotch marine boiler
  4. Steam Engines
  5. Steam Cranes

The efficiency of Simple Vertical Boiler-

A simple vertical boiler gives an efficiency of around 70 to 75%.

The amount of fuel is supplied to the boiler in which 70 to 75% of the energy is consumed by the boiler, the rest of the fuel’s energy goes under heat loss or energy loss.

The efficiency of any boiler mostly depends on its-

  • Design
  • Fuel types
  • Condition of operating
  • Furnace size
  • The amount of fuel is burning


Wrapping Up-

For Simple Vertical Boiler, that’s all I have for now. I sincerely hope that this page was useful to you and helped you learn the information you were looking for about this turbine.

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The following are some recommended related articles that you should read further:

Cochran Boiler: Definition, Mountings, Specifications, Characteristics and Much More

Nestler Boiler: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages and More

Babcock and Wilcox boiler: Everything you need to Know

Stirling Boiler: Definition, Parts, Working, Applications and More


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