Kaplan Turbine: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Application

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This blog post is going to discuss every aspect of the Kaplan turbine including its definition, Parts of this turbine, Working, advantages, disadvantages, application, and more down the road.

So, stay tuned with me, and Let me take you to the mainstream…

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Now, Let’s dive into the mainstream…

kaplan turbine

What is Kaplan Turbine?

It is a hydraulic reaction turbine that works on the load head with high water discharge capacity using axial flow, Known as a Kaplan turbine.

This turbine was invented by Victor Kaplan in 1916.

Here, I don’t have to tell you that this turbine’s name was kept on the inventor’s last name.

Now, Let’s move to Kaplan turbine construction and working-

Main Parts or Construction of the Kaplan Turbine-

Here are the major parts of the Kaplan turbine and their working in this turbine-

  1. Penstock-
  2. Scroll casing
  3. Guide Vanes
  4. Runner Blades
  5. Hub
  6. Draft Tube

1. Penstock-

It is a way to drive water from the dam or head to the turbine. It can be made up of concrete or steel. This penstock connects the dam to the turbine and brings water from the dam to the turbine.

2. Scroll Casing-

It is a cover of the turbine in a spiral shape that protects the turbine’s inner equipment.

Scroll casing further guides the water to the guide vanes and also helps to maintain the kinetic and pressure energy of water due to its spiral design with decreasing cross-section area.

3. Guide Vanes-

As the name suggests, Guide vanes are used to guide the water into the runner’s blade.

This guide vane mechanism works as per requirement, If the load of the turbine is increased, the flow rate of water into the runner’s blade will be increased and vice versa.

4. Runner-

The runner is the heart of this turbine as it runs the blade of the turbine with the help of water’s kinetic and pressure energy to rotate the attached shaft and further helps to generate electricity.

In this turbine, the number of runner’s blades can be from 4 to 6.

5. Hub-

It is the parts of the runner used to mount the runner’s blade.

6. Draft Tube-

It is a gradually increased tube used to drain the water from the runner.

This draught tube is further connected to the tailrace which drains the water from the turbine to the tailrace vai draft tube.

Kaplan turbine diagram

Working of Kaplan Turbine-

Firstly, water drives from the dam or head to the scroll casing via penstock.

Scroll casing further helps to remains the water’s kinetic and pressure energy to maintain the efficiency of the turbine.

Now, water in the scroll casing moves towards the guide vanes and further guide vanes push the water into the runner blades in the axial direction.

The kinetic and pressure energy of the water further helps to rotate the turbine’s blades or runner’s blades.

Here, water’s hydraulic energy is converted into mechanical energy by rotating the shaft.

The connected shaft with the runner also rotates with runner rotation.

The rotating shaft is further connected to the gearbox and further generator.

The generator further converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy and further electricity is produced using Kaplan turbine.

This is how this turbine works.


  1. Easy to install
  2. compact in design
  3. Widely used turbines around the globe
  4. One of the highest-efficiency giver turbine
  5. Works flawlessly even with the low-head dam.


  1. Formation of the cavity is the major drawback of this turbine.
  2. Needs regular maintenance
  3. Costly


  1. Electricity Generation


Wrapping Up-

This is all I have for Kaplan Turbine. I hope this post helped you to find the desired knowledge about this turbine and further added some value to you.

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Here are some suggested related articles, you must consider reading further-

Propeller Turbine: Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications

Constant Volume & Constant Pressure Gas Turbine

Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine


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